Sudarshan Research Journal

How to Cite a Research Paper

The specific way to cite a research paper can vary depending on the citation style you are using, such as APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), Chicago, or others. Here are general guidelines on how to cite a research paper in APA, MLA, and Chicago styles:

  1. APA Style:

In-text citation:

  • For a single author: (Author’s Last name, Year of publication)
  • For multiple authors (up to 20 authors): (First Author’s Last name et al., Year of publication)
  • For more than 20 authors: (First Author’s Last name et al., Year of publication)

Reference list:

  • For a journal article: Author’s Last name, Author’s Initials. (Year of publication). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. DOI or URL if available.

For a conference paper: Author’s Last name, Author’s Initials. (Year of publication). Title of the paper. In Proceedings of the Conference Name (pp. page range). Conference Location. DOI or URL if available.

  1. MLA Style:

In-text citation:

  • For a single author: (Author’s Last name page number)
  • For multiple authors: (First Author’s Last name and Second Author’s Last name page number)

Works Cited list:

  • For a journal article: Author’s Last name, Author’s First name. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Journal, volume number, issue number, Year of publication, page range. DOI or URL if available.
  • For a conference paper: Author’s Last name, Author’s First name. “Title of the Paper.” Title of the Conference Proceedings, Conference Location, Year of publication, page range. DOI or URL if available.
  1. Chicago Style:

Footnote/Endnote citation:

  • For a single author: Author’s First name Author’s Last name, “Title of the Article” (Journal Title volume number, issue number, Year of publication), page number.

Bibliography:

  • For a journal article: Author’s Last name, Author’s First name. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Journal volume number, issue number (Year of publication): page range. DOI or URL if available.
  • For a conference paper: Author’s Last name, Author’s First name. “Title of the Paper.” In Title of the Conference Proceedings, edited by Editor’s First name Editor’s Last name, page range. Conference Location: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI or URL if available.

Note: These are general guidelines and may not cover all possible scenarios. Always consult the specific citation style guide or the instructions provided by the publication or institution where you are submitting your work for accurate and complete citations.

What is Citing in Research Paper

Citing a research paper refers to the process of formally acknowledging and referencing a published research paper in a new work, such as an academic article, thesis, or report. It involves providing proper attribution to the original authors and sources of information that have been used in the new work, in order to give credit, provide evidence for claims, and allow readers to locate the original research for further reading and verification.

Citing a research paper typically involves providing the following information:

  1. Author(s): Include the name(s) of the author(s) of the research paper. If there are multiple authors, list them in the order they appear in the original paper.
  2. Title: Include the title of the research paper in quotation marks or italics, followed by the title of the journal or conference proceedings where the paper was published (if applicable). If the paper is unpublished or available online only, provide a description or URL.
  3. Date: Include the publication date of the research paper, usually in parentheses. If the research paper is unpublished, provide the date when it was completed or accessed.
  4. Source: Provide information about the source of the research paper, such as the journal name, volume number, issue number, page range, and DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL if applicable. For conference papers, provide the name of the conference, location, and date.
  5. Optional information: Depending on the citation style being used (such as APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.), additional information such as the edition, publisher, and ISBN may be required.

It’s important to follow the citation style guidelines specified by the publication or institution where you are submitting your work, as different citation styles have different formats and requirements. Properly citing research papers is crucial for maintaining academic integrity, avoiding plagiarism, and allowing others to verify and build upon your research.

What is MLA Style Research Paper

The MLA (Modern Language Association) style is a set of guidelines for formatting and documenting research papers in the humanities and liberal arts fields, such as English, literature, and cultural studies. An MLA style research paper typically includes the following elements:

  1. Page Formatting: The paper should be typed on standard-sized paper (8.5 x 11 inches) with 1-inch margins on all sides. The font should be legible and preferably set to Times New Roman, size 12. The paper should be double-spaced, and a header with the author’s last name and page number should be included on each page.
  2. Title Page: MLA style research papers do not usually require a separate title page. Instead, the title of the paper should be centered on the first page of the paper, followed by the author’s name, the instructor’s name, the course title and number, and the date, all double-spaced.
  3. In-Text Citations: MLA style uses parenthetical citations within the text to indicate the source of information. This includes the author’s last name and the page number of the source. For example: (Smith 25). If the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence, only the page number is included in the parentheses.
  4. Works Cited Page: MLA style requires a separate page at the end of the paper called “Works Cited” that lists all the sources cited in the paper. The entries should be arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name. The basic format for a book citation includes the author’s name, the title of the book in italics or underlined, the place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the publication year. Different types of sources, such as articles, websites, and films, have slightly different citation formats.
  5. Quotations: When including direct quotations in the paper, they should be enclosed in double quotation marks. If the quotation is longer than four lines, it should be indented as a block quotation without quotation marks, and the citation should be placed at the end of the block.
  6. General Formatting: MLA style research papers should be written in a formal and academic tone. Standard grammar, punctuation, and capitalization rules should be followed. The paper should be well-organized, with a clear introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion.

These are some of the basic elements of an MLA style research paper. It’s important to consult the official MLA Handbook or an authoritative source for detailed and up-to-date guidelines when formatting and documenting your research paper in MLA style.

What is an argumentative research paper

An argumentative research paper is a type of academic writing that requires the author to investigate a particular topic or issue, critically analyze and evaluate evidence, and present a clear and coherent argument or position supported by evidence. The goal of an argumentative research paper is to persuade the reader to accept the author’s viewpoint or stance on a controversial or debatable topic.

A typical argumentative research paper follows a specific structure, which includes an introduction, literature review, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion. However, the organization and length of each section may vary depending on the specific requirements of the assignment or the field of study.

Introduction: The introduction section of an argumentative research paper provides background information on the topic and presents the research question or thesis statement. It should be engaging and clearly state the author’s position or argument. The introduction should also provide a rationale for why the topic is important and relevant, and may include a brief overview of the main arguments or points that will be discussed in the paper.

Literature review: The literature review section provides a comprehensive review of the existing research and scholarly literature related to the topic of the paper. It should critically evaluate and analyze the existing evidence, theories, and arguments, and identify any gaps or limitations in the current understanding of the topic. The literature review section should also provide the necessary context for the author’s argument or position and support the need for further research or investigation.

Methods: The methods section describes the research methods or approaches used to collect and analyze data or evidence for the argumentative research paper. It should provide sufficient details to allow readers to understand and replicate the research. The methods section may include information about the research design, data collection methods, data analysis techniques, and any other procedures or steps undertaken during the research process.

Results: The results section presents the findings of the research or the evidence collected in support of the author’s argument or position. It should be presented objectively and clearly, using appropriate visual aids such as tables, charts, or graphs, if applicable. The results section should be organized logically and provide a comprehensive and accurate representation of the data or evidence obtained.

Discussion: The discussion section interprets the results and presents the author’s analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the findings. It should explain the implications of the results and relate them back to the research question or thesis statement. The author should critically analyze and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence, consider alternative viewpoints or counterarguments, and provide a persuasive argument to support their position. The discussion section should be well-supported with evidence and references from the literature.

Conclusion: The conclusion section summarizes the main arguments or points made in the paper and restates the thesis statement or research question. It should provide a concise and compelling summary of the author’s position or argument, and may also highlight the implications and significance of the research. The conclusion should leave a strong impression on the reader and reinforce the author’s argument

In addition to the main sections listed above, an argumentative research paper may also include other elements such as an abstract, acknowledgments, appendices, or references, depending on the requirements of the assignment or the specific guidelines of the field of study.

When writing an argumentative research paper, it is important to use a clear, concise, and formal writing style. The author should provide strong evidence and logical reasoning to support their argument, and critically evaluate and address potential counterarguments or opposing viewpoints. Proper citation and referencing of sources is essential to acknowledge the contributions of other researchers and ensure academic integrity.

In conclusion, an argumentative research paper is a type of academic writing that presents a persuasive argument or position on a controversial or debatable topic. It requires a thorough investigation of the topic, critical analysis of evidence, and clear and coherent presentation of arguments.

What is the meaning of scientific paper

A scientific paper in research is a written document that presents the findings of scientific research conducted by researchers or scientists. It serves as a formal and systematic means of communicating research results to the scientific community, allowing for the dissemination of new knowledge and fostering further scientific inquiry. A typical scientific paper follows a specific format and structure, which may vary slightly depending on the field or discipline, but generally includes sections such as an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and references.

The abstract is a concise summary of the research paper, usually ranging from 150 to 250 words. It provides a brief overview of the research question or hypothesis, the methods used, the main results obtained, and the conclusions drawn. It is often the first section of the paper and serves as a brief snapshot of the study, allowing readers to quickly assess its relevance and decide whether to read further.

The introduction section provides the necessary background information about the research topic, sets the context for the study, and presents the research question or hypothesis. It may review relevant literature, highlight previous research and theories related to the topic, and explain the significance of the research. The introduction section aims to provide a rationale for the study and create a compelling case for the research question being addressed.

The methods section describes in detail how the research was conducted, providing sufficient information for other researchers to replicate the study. It includes details about the study design, sample size, data collection methods, instrumentation, data analysis, and statistical procedures used. The methods section should be written in a clear and precise manner, allowing for the reproducibility and transparency of the research.

The results section presents the findings of the research, typically using tables, figures, or other visual representations of data. It objectively reports the main findings without interpretation or discussion. The results section should be organized logically, with clear headings and subheadings, and should present the data in a systematic and coherent manner, facilitating the understanding of the research findings.

The discussion section interprets the results and relates them back to the research question or hypothesis. It discusses the implications of the findings, compares them with previous research, and provides explanations or interpretations for the results obtained. The discussion section may also address any limitations of the study and suggest directions for future research. It is important to support any claims or interpretations with evidence from the study or relevant literature.

The references section provides a list of all the sources cited in the paper, formatted according to the specific citation style used in the field of study, such as the American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), or Chicago Manual of Style. Proper referencing is crucial for acknowledging the contributions of other researchers, providing evidence for claims made in the paper, and allowing readers to locate the original sources for further reference.

Scientific papers are typically written in a formal and objective tone, using clear and concise language. It is important to use precise and accurate terminology, avoid ambiguity, and provide sufficient details about the research methods and results for others to evaluate and replicate the study. Scientific papers are also subject to peer review, where experts in the field evaluate the quality, validity, and rigor of the research before publication. The feedback obtained from the peer review process helps improve the quality of the paper and ensures the reliability and credibility of the research.

In conclusion, a scientific paper in research is a formal and systematic document that presents the findings of scientific research in a structured and organized manner. It follows a specific format and includes sections such as abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and references. Scientific papers are essential for advancing knowledge in various fields and play a crucial role in the scientific communication process. Writing a scientific paper requires careful planning, meticulous execution of the research, and clear and concise communication of the findings.

What is the meaning of APA Style Paper

APA style, or the American Psychological Association style, is a set of guidelines commonly used in academic writing, particularly in the field of social sciences, for formatting and organizing research papers. APA style provides rules for how to format and structure various elements of a research paper, including the title page, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, references, and other sections.

Here are some key components of an APA style paper:

  1. Title Page: The title page includes the title of the paper, the author’s name, and the institutional affiliation. It may also include the running head, which is a shortened version of the paper title, and the page number.
  2. Abstract: The abstract is a brief summary of the main points of the research paper. It is typically written on a separate page and should be between 150 and 250 words.
  3. Introduction: The introduction provides background information about the research topic and presents the research question or hypothesis. It also reviews relevant literature and outlines the purpose and significance of the study.
  4. Methods: The methods section describes how the research was conducted, including the participants, materials, and procedures used. It should be detailed enough for the study to be replicated by other researchers.
  5. Results: The results section presents the findings of the research, including any statistical analyses or data. It may include tables, figures, or other visual representations of the data.
  6. Discussion: The discussion section interprets the results and relates them back to the research question or hypothesis. It also discusses the implications of the findings, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research.
  7. References: The references section provides a list of all the sources cited in the paper, formatted according to APA style guidelines. It includes the author’s name, publication year, title of the work, and publication information.

Other elements of an APA style paper may include in-text citations, which are used to acknowledge and give credit to the original sources of information within the text of the paper, and formatting guidelines for fonts, margins, spacing, and headings.

It’s important to carefully follow APA style guidelines when writing a research paper to ensure consistency and accuracy in citation and formatting, and to adhere to academic standards. Consulting the official APA Publication Manual or online resources can provide more detailed guidance on how to format an APA style paper.

BENEFITS OF PUBLISHING YOUR RESEARCH PAPER IN A JOURNAL

There are several benefits to publishing your research paper in a journal, including:

1. Increased visibility and recognition: Publishing your research paper in a journal can help increase its visibility and recognition within the academic community, as well as with the general public. This can lead to greater citation rates and a wider impact of your research.

2. Double Blind Peer review and feedback: Journals typically use a double blind peer review process to evaluate the quality and validity of submitted research papers. This process can provide valuable feedback and suggestions for improvement, and can help strengthen your research findings.

3. Career advancement: Publishing in a journal can be an important factor in career advancement, particularly for academic researchers. It can demonstrate your expertise in a particular area of study, and help you gain recognition and credibility within your field.

4. Access to funding opportunities: Many funding agencies and institutions require evidence of publications in reputable journals as a requirement for grant applications. Publishing your research paper in a journal can help increase your chances of receiving funding opportunities.

5. Contribution to knowledge: By publishing your research paper in a journal, you are contributing to the advancement of knowledge in your field. Your research can help inform future studies and contribute to the development of new ideas and theories.

Overall, publishing your research paper in a journal can offer numerous benefits, from increasing the visibility and recognition of your research to advancing your career and contributing to the advancement of knowledge in your field.

WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER?

PROCESS OF WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER

There are certain procedures one should follow while writing a research report. The procedure may be summarized as follows:

  1. Choose A Topic: Choose anything that piques your curiosity and can support your investigation. Think on how far reaching, relevant, and doable the issue is.
  2. Conduct Preliminary Research: Learn what is already known about the topic by reading the relevant books and articles. Reading the appropriate books, academic journals, and credible internet sources can help you acquire background information and uncover gaps in the study that has been done before.
  3. Enhance the Clarity of Your Research Question or Thesis Statement: Your preliminary study should help you zero in on a certain topic so that you may formulate a focused research question or thesis statement. This will act as the framework around which your paper is built.
  4. Plan Your Work Using an Outline: You should make an outline to help you organise your ideas and key points. It helps you keep on track while writing by giving your article a coherent framework to follow.
  5. Collect Information and Analyse it: Gather information from credible, relevant sources to back up your claims. Books, scholarly articles, and respectable websites all fall within this category. Consider the quality, accuracy, and reliability of each source you use.
  6. Construct A Research Methodology: Describe your research methodology if your paper involves empirical research or data collection. Describe the data collection methods you will employ and justify why they are applicable for your research.
  7. Compose the Prologue: Write an interesting beginning to your article in which you state your research topic, provide some context, and emphasise the importance of your study. Put your concise thesis statement at the end of the introduction.
  8. Create the Primary Text: Structure your paper’s main body in parts or paragraphs, each of which deals with a different facet of your study. Justify your claims using examples from your sources and explain how you arrived at your conclusions. Make sure that everything flows together well.
  9. Cite Your References: Give proper acknowledgment to the original authors by using the proper citation style (such as APA, MLA, or Chicago). Always cite your sources inside the body of your article and compile a bibliography or reference list for your work at the conclusion.
  10. Write the Concluding Portion: Provide a brief overview of your primary points and arguments, and elaborate on their significance. Thesis statement restated; wider relevance of study discussed. Never add fresh material to a conclusion.
  11. Rewrite and Amend: Focusing on clarity, coherence, and grammar, review your draught. Check for logical inconsistencies, enhance sentence structure, and format properly. Rewrite as necessary to refine your arguments and improve the overall quality of your paper.
  12. Proofread: Make sure there are no grammatical, spelling, or punctuation flaws in your work. If you’re worried about missing a mistake, reading it out loud or having someone else reread it may help.
  13. Format and complete: Make sure you follow the instructions for formatting a research paper given to you by your teacher or the publication you’re submitting to. Make use of a title page, page numbers, appropriate headers, and the correct citation format for your work.

Keep in mind that this is only a rough outline, and that your individual needs and conventions may differ based on your area of study or your institution’s policies. If you want to be sure you’re meeting the criteria, read the instructions or ask your teacher or boss.

HOW MANY TYPE OF RESEARCH PAPERS ARE THERE?

Types of Research Papers

There are many distinct varieties of research papers, each of which has its own particular goal, organisational scheme, and method. The following are some of the most prevalent sorts of research papers:

  1. Argumentative Research Paper: A research paper that is argumentative provides a contentious or contentious issue and argues for a certain stance or perspective on the topic. It is necessary for the author to defend their position with facts, rational reasoning, and convincing arguments. The objective of the paper is to persuade the audience that the author’s point of view is correct.
  2. Analytical Research Paper: The purpose of an analytical research paper is to investigate a subject or problem by dissecting it into its component parts and providing a critical assessment of each of those parts. This study investigates the subject from a variety of viewpoints, assesses the merits of various points of view, and provides an in-depth analysis as well as an interpretation of the results.
  3. Experimental Research Paper: In an experimental research paper, the author presents a report on the findings of a scientific experiment or study that they themselves carried out. In most cases, it adheres to the steps outlined in the scientific method, which include the development of a hypothesis, the design and execution of experiments, the collecting of data, an analysis of the results, and the presentation of the findings.
  4. Survey Research Paper: A survey research paper is one that obtains data from a sample population by having questionnaires or surveys filled out by such sample group. The study goals, methods, data analysis, and conclusions based on the replies gathered are all presented in this section. Many times, research articles based on surveys provide new insights into the attitudes, behaviours, and trends that exist within a certain group.
  5. Review Research Paper: A research article that is in the form of a review does a synthesis and evaluation of the previous work that has been done on a certain subject. It seeks to offer a complete assessment of the present state of knowledge, highlight gaps or contradictions, and recommend future research initiatives. Review papers provide readers with a more well-rounded grasp of a topic by critically analysing and summarising a broad variety of previously published works on the subject.Comparative Research Paper: A comparative research article examines many topics, methods, or phenomena and draws comparisons and contrasts between them. It does so by analysing the similarities, differences, patterns, or correlations between the things that are being investigated. In order to arrive at insightful findings, comparative research articles sometimes examine a number of different case studies or data sets.
  6. Descriptive Research Paper: The purpose of writing a descriptive research paper is to chronicle and describe a certain event, occurrence, or topic. It offers in-depth facts, observations, and interpretations without making any effort to explain the links between causes and effects. Research articles that are descriptive are often seen in the fields of social sciences, anthropology, and observational studies.
  7. Theoretical Research Paper: The purpose of a theoretical research article is to create or improve upon a theoretical framework, model, or notion within a certain academic field. Theoretical reasoning may be used to examine hypotheses, provide new theoretical views, or integrate current ones.

It is essential to keep in mind that these classifications are not incompatible with one another; hence, many research publications may incorporate aspects of more than one category. The research topic, goals, and methods, as well as the audience that the paper is intended for, all have a role in the choice of research paper type. The researchers need to choose which style is going to be most successful in communicating their results while still allowing them to achieve the goals of their investigation.

WHAT IS RESEARCH PAPER ?

research paper

A research paper is a written report that details the findings of an inquiry or study into a certain subject. An academic article is a formal piece of writing meant to add to the body of knowledge in a certain area. Students, academics, scientists, and researchers often publish their discoveries and results with the academic community in the form of research papers. The following are the main parts of any research paper:

research paper
Find how to write a research paper

Abstract: An abstract is a short synopsis of the article that highlights the main points of the study, including the research question, methods, and results.

Introduction: The purpose of an introduction is to introduce the research issue, state the research question or aim, and provide context for the study within the current body of knowledge.

Literature Review: The term “literature review” refers to an in-depth analysis of existing studies and academic publications that are directly linked to the issue at hand. The literature review provides necessary background information, highlights any knowledge gaps, and explains why this particular investigation is warranted.

Methodology: The methodology of a study details its approach to research and the techniques and methods that were used to produce its findings. Methods for gathering, analysing, and interpreting the data are described here. It has to be specific enough so that other researchers can carry out the same analysis.

Results: In the results section, you can discover the study’s conclusions, which were drawn from the analysed data. Information is often presented in the form of tables, graphs, charts, or statistical analysis.

Discussion: The analysis and interpretation of the data in light of the research topic is the discussion. The ramifications, importance, and limits of the results are discussed here as well. A review of relevant literature may be cited to provide context for the findings or to draw parallels with previous studies.

Conclusion: The conclusion restates the relevance of the study’s key results and summarises them. It may also point to potential future study directions or areas that need further exploration.

Reference: A complete bibliography of all the works used in the study project. In this area, you will list the primary sources that served as the basis for your analysis.

Experts in the same area as the paper’s authors assess its rigour, methodology, validity, and addition to knowledge in a process known as “peer review.”